Efficacy against frequently-studied bacteria:

Parthasarathy, Anand, et al. “Conjugated polyelectrolytes with imidazolium solubilizing groups. properties and application to photodynamic inactivation of bacteria.” ACS applied materials & interfaces 7.51 (2015): 28027-28034.


Efficacy against antibiotic-resistant E. coli

Wang, Ying, et al. “Dark antimicrobial mechanisms of cationic phenylene ethynylene polymers and oligomers against Escherichia coli.” Polymers 3.3 (2011): 1199-1214.


Efficacy against spore-forming bacteria

Lu, Liangde, et al. “Biocidal activity of a light-absorbing fluorescent conjugated polyelectrolyte.” Langmuir 21.22 (2005): 10154-10159.

Pappas, Harry C., Julie A. Lovchik, and David G. Whitten. “Assessing the sporicidal activity of oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes and their role as bacillus germinants.” Langmuir 31.15 (2015): 4481-4489.


Efficacy against bacterial biofilms

Dascier, Dimitri, et al. “Efficacy of end-only-functionalized oligo (arylene-ethynylene) s in killing bacterial biofilms.” Langmuir 28.31 (2012): 11286-11290.


Efficacy against viruses

Wang, Ying, et al. “Cationic phenylene ethynylene polymers and oligomers exhibit efficient antiviral activity.” ACS applied materials & interfaces 3.7 (2011): 2209-2214.


Efficacy against fungi

Wang, Ying, et al. “Antimicrobial activity of cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes and oligomers against Saccharomyces cerevisiae vegetative cells and ascospores.” ACS applied materials & interfaces 5.11 (2013): 4555-4561.

Pappas, Harry C., et al. “Antifungal Properties of Cationic Phenylene Ethynylenes and Their Impact on β-Glucan Exposure.” Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 60.8 (2016): 4519-4529.


Fabric treatment

Ista, Linnea K., et al. “Conjugated-polyelectrolyte-grafted cotton fibers act as “micro flypaper” for the removal and destruction of bacteria.” ACS applied materials & interfaces 3.8 (2011): 2932-2937.


Surface treatment and/or self-cleaning surfaces

Yu, Qian, Linnea K. Ista, and Gabriel P. López. “Nanopatterned antimicrobial enzymatic surfaces combining biocidal and fouling release properties.” Nanoscale 6.9 (2014): 4750-4757.

Yu, Qian, et al. “Antimicrobial and bacteria-releasing multifunctional surfaces: Oligo (p-phenylene-ethynylene)/poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) films deposited by RIR-MAPLE.” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 126 (2015): 328-334.

Pappas, Harry C., et al. “Self-Sterilizing, Self-Cleaning Mixed Polymeric Multifunctional Antimicrobial Surfaces.” ACS applied materials & interfaces 7.50 (2015): 27632-27638.

Ista, Linnea K., et al. “Reusable nanoengineered surfaces for bacterial recruitment and decontamination.” Biointerphases 11.1 (2016): 019003.


Strategies for mitigating photodegradation and extending the kill window

Hill, Eric H., et al. “Cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes form complexes with surfactants for long-term light-activated biocidal applications.” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 13.2 (2014): 247-253.